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This is the "Referencing @ SSC" page of the "Saint Stephen's iCentre" guide.
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Last Updated: Aug 21, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

Referencing @ SSC Print Page

APA CiteMaker

CiteMaker is an automated citation generator that we have subscribed to, and thoroughly recommend for Saint Stephen's College students.  

To register, use your (or email address.  Your password will then be sent to you by email and you can change this once you have logged in.

If using Chrome as your browser, CiteMaker has a great little extension called CiteWeb, allowing you to add a citation to your bibliography without leaving the web page.  Add the CiteWeb extension by clicking on the Add CiteWeb button located at the bottom left-hand column of the page.


Avoiding Plagiarism: When Should I Cite a Source?

Deciding if something is "common knowledge"

Generally speaking, you can regard something as common knowledge if you find the same information undocumented in at least five credible sources. Additionally, it might be common knowledge if you think the information you're presenting is something your readers will already know, or something that a person could easily find in general reference sources. But when in doubt, cite!


QUT Annotated Bibliography

QUT cite/write is a great guide to citing, referencing and academic writing.  The link below will take you to information on how to write an annotated bibliography.




Saint Stephen's College uses APA 6 style referencing


Using In-text Citation


Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.

APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number. 

Direct Quotes

Short Direct Quotes are fewer than 40 words, require a page number and the use of double speech marks. Quotes that are part of the main sentence are referenced differently to those that are not, e.g.

1. Author is not part of main sentence:
“Obesity in Australian children has reached crisis proportions” (Stanton, 2008, pp. 82-83).

2. Author is part of main sentence:
Nutritionist Rosemary Stanton (2008) warns “Obesity in Australian children has reached crisis proportions” (pp. 82-83).

Direct quotations longer than 3 lines must be placed in a freestanding block of text, with double line spacing and indented 2cm from the left margin. Quotation marks are not required and the full stop occurs at the end of the quote.

Indirect quotes (paraphrasing)

An indirect quote paraphrases the author’s original words
1. If Author is not part of the main sentence:
One prominent Queensland environmentalist (Shaw, 2008) feels that river catchments are very much at risk because of urban expansion (p.47).

2. If Author is part of the main sentence:
River catchments are very much at risk because of urban expansion, according to prominent Victorian environmentalist Dr Tina Shaw (2008, p. 47).

Example paragraph with in-text citation:

A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing, Rossiter, & Munro, 2002; Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.


Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23(4), 245-259.

Thomas, H. K. (2004). Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.

Reference List or Bibliography?

A list of references refers to sources that are actually cited (or referenced) in your assignment.
A Bibliography refers to sources that are actually cited (or referenced in your assignment) AS WELL AS other sources that you consulted which are not directly cited in your text.

The iCentre has copies of “APA Guide to Referencing for Secondary Students” by Jennifer King, which are available for students to help them master correct referencing. We acknowledge the work that Jennifer King has done in preparing this guide and thank her for allowing us to reproduce many of the examples on this site.


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