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Last Updated: Oct 31, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

Copyright and the Creative Commons Print Page


In Australia, copyright law is contained in the Commonwealth Copyright Act 1968 (Copyright Act).

A simple definition of copyright is that it is a bunch of rights in certain creative works such as text, artistic works, music, computer programs, sound recordings and films. The rights are granted exclusively to the copyright owner to reproduce the material, and for some material, the right to perform or show the work to the public. Copyright owners can prevent others from reproducing or communicating their work without their permission or may sell these rights to someone else.

Copyright does not protect ideas, concepts, styles or techniques. For example, copyright will not protect an idea for a film or book, but it will protect a script for the film or even a storyboard for the film.

Copyright is a separate right to the property right in an object. For example, this means that the person may own a book or painting will not also own the copyright in the book or painting unless it has been specifically assigned to them.

In Australia, copyright protection is automatic. There is no need for copyright registration in Australia, nor is there a legal requirement to publish the work or to put a copyright notice on it. A work will be protected as soon as it is put into material form, such as being written down or recorded in some way (filmed or recorded on an audio tape).


Copying Limits


The Statutory Text and Artistic Licence permits an educational institution to reproduce:

  • an article in an issue of a journal, newspaper, or magazine (periodical)
  • more than one article in a periodical if the article is on the same subject
  • a literary work of no more than 15 pages are published in an anthology
  • a reasonable portion of a print work in hard copy (10% or one chapter, whichever is greater)

In addition, a whole work can be copied in the following circumstances:

  • the whole of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work that has not been separately published (including unpublished works)
  • the whole of the work is not available in either hard copy or electronic form within a reasonable time at an ordinary commercial price
  • the whole of a published edition where the underlying work is out of copyright

Electronic Material 

Under the Statutory Text and Artistic Licence (Electronic Use Scheme) educational institutions may reproduce and communicate:

  • 10% of the words of an electronic work.

In addition, a whole work can be copied in the following circumstances:

  • the whole of a literary, dramatic or musical work which has not been separately published (including unpublished works such as conference paper or research paper on disk that are not available to the public)
  • the whole of a literary, dramatic or musical work that is not available in electronic form within a reasonable time at an ordinary commercial price
  • the work is an artistic work.
Source: Smartcopying 

Creative Commons Licences


Creative Commons Image Sites and Tools

FlickrCC Stampr

This site allows you to search for Flickr images, and stamp them with an attribution and Creative Commons licence. Download the image as a .jpg file, or generate an html embed code with an attribution and link to the source Flickr page.


GETTY Images

Getty Images is a database of over 50 Million images, all free to embed into webpages using Getty's embed tool.

Including the links and information at the bottom of the image are a condition of use, and it is not possible to resize the image. Below is an example of how it will look:


Image Codr

With Image Codr, you simply enter in the URL of the Flickr picture page (as seen in your browser) and Image Codr will generate the ready to use HTML code. It will also display a brief and easy license summary, so you don't get in legal trouble because you missed something.
Flickr hosts millions of images that are licenced under a Creative Commons licence or are in the public domain (Flickr Commons). Depending on the licence, you may use the images on your private or commercial webpage, or can make changes to it.

Livraria Lello, Porto

Photos for Class

Photos for Class contains images that are appropriate for the school setting and licensed by Creative Commons for public use.  Downloaded images automatically cite the author and the image license terms, making correct attribution a breeze!  


CC Search

The CC Search prototype allows you to search across a variety of open content through a single interface, and create and share lists and save your searches. One of the best features is one-click attribution, giving you the option to copy the attribution as text or HTML, making it super simple to correctly credit images in your research task.

Here is an example:


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